Friday, 30 December 2016

Existence of God : Myth or Reality?

The philosophy of Atheism in its fundamental sense tends to laud rationale and logic, but is actually considerably irrational. Its propagators and prophets tend to put a lot of stock in “empirical methods” and “logical” arguments but its core stays away from rational thought and logic. In this work, we shall analyze the rationale to renounce and denounce the essence of atheism.

To start with, atheists, sadly, don’t realize that by adhering to an empirical method one can never disprove God’s existence because in order to disprove existence of God experimentally, one ought to possess comprehensive knowledge of everything. In other words, one ought to be omniscient, which consequently and by definition would make him God. Hence, the only one who is qualified for disproving the existence of God empirically, is God himself.

If we continue to apply the sets of laws built by atheists on the logic they have developed, we see a similar result. The “people of science” laud scientism, which is a view that a proposition is not true if it is not proven scientifically. This idea is self-defeating, because the idea of scientism itself can’t be proved scientifically. As we dig deeper into atheism we find the immature argument of existence of evil and suffering in the world which sadly, presupposes that a good God wouldn’t allow suffering and evil to persist in the world. We have Carl Sagan admirers assuming the eternity of universe but, unfortunately, their wishy-washy arguments are clearly refuted by the Big Bang theory and the second law of thermodynamics. And then we have the Prophet of Atheism, Richard Dawkins and his book, ‘The God Delusion’ which simply presents, few rehashed arguments in a new fancy look. Dawkins considers his best argument to be the ‘larger problem’ of who designed the designer of the universe [1].

The argument in its entirety is flawed. If the Designer itself has a Designer then the Designer of the Designer would have yet another Designer, and so on and on to infinity, which if taken into account from a broad perspective would suggest that the Universe existed forever thereby contradicting with the Big Bang theory. This implies that the Designer is uncreated and therefore eternal.

God’s existence is not merely logically promising but also philosophically, very essential. I shall be presenting two arguments in this article
       

    
 1. Argument from causality: The Quran presents the following argument:  “Or were they created by nothing? Or were they the creators (of themselves)? Or did they create heavens and earth? Rather, they are not certain.”[2]

Let’s scrutinize this verse.

(a)    “Or were they created by nothing?..”

Created by nothing? Does it sound rational? Forget being rational, is it even close to sane?  It’s an undeniable philosophical principle that nothing comes out of nothing. Consider an example of, say, a “BOOM” explosive noise. Obviously, this ‘BOOM’ sound would have a cause which your curious eyes would look for. In order for something to even BEGIN to exist, it must have a cause/creator.

(b)   “Or were they the creators (of themselves)?”

Now that we know, that there must be a cause for any entity which begins to exist, the subsequent question arises who that cause/creator is? Did that very entity create itself? Surely not! Because that would imply that it must exist and not exist at the same time which is logically incoherent. Before proceeding any further, let’s quickly summarize the above discussion:

1. Anything which BEGINS to exist has a cause/creator.

2. If Universe began to exist it must have a cause/creator.



Now, let us dissect and confront the concept of the origin of universe. Did it BEGIN to exist or, is it eternal? If the former is true, the conclusion would be that there is a cause/creator of this mind boggling universe, while the latter being the truth would imply that the universe doesn’t have any creator/cause. In the light of science, I can assert with full conviction that yes, it did begin to exist. The Second Law of thermodynamics is the irrefutable argument for my claim that the universe had a beginning; this scientific concept is infused with a particular law called the ‘law of entropy’ which explains the directions of various processes that occur in the natural world. ‘Entropy’ is a measure of how energy is distributed evenly in a system. For instance, he
at always flows from a body of a higher temperature or energy to one of a lower temperature or energy.

According to the second law of thermodynamics, processes in a closed system tend to go towards higher entropy. If we apply second law of thermodynamics to this universe we would reach the conclusion that the universe must have begun to exist at some point of time, the universe being a closed system. If the universe had never had a beginning of existence (if it was eternal), it would imply that the universe had been existing for an infinite amount of time which would be highly illogical since with so much time this universe would have already been in a state of heat death or ‘thermodynamic equilibrium’ because when a system is in thermodynamic equilibrium, transfer of energy gets neutralized within. Hence, as the universe continues to expand it will gradually become cold and dead. Since universe is not suffering from any heat death, it can be unambiguously inferred that it must have begun to exist at some point of time.

As is evident from the above argument, the universe did begin to exist. Therefore, it must have a cause/creator just like any other entity. For example, for a chair to begin to exist, it must have a cause/creator which is its carpenter.

As of now, let me draw the inferences:

1. Anything that BEGINS to exist has a cause/creator.
2. Universe began to exist.
3. Therefore, universe has a cause/creator.



2. Argument from Design: The intricate brilliance of the created order giving structure to our universe indicates the existence of an infinitely intelligent Designer, because our universe is extremely fine-tuned to make its existence and existence of human life possible. It’s intuitively obvious that merely an unplanned, unexplained accident could never be solely capable of producing the order, beauty, elegance, and the seeming purpose that we experience in the natural world around us.

Below are few examples and observations that appreciate how finely-tuned and intricately designed our universe is.

• The Strength of Gravity & the Atomic Weak Force: Physicist P. C. W. Davies has calculated that a change in the strength of gravity or of the atomic weak force by only one part in 10100 would have prevented a life permitting universe. [3]

• Big Bang’s Low Entropy Condition: Roger Penrose of Oxford University has calculated that the odds of the Big Bang’s low entropy condition existing by chance are on the order of one out of 1010 (123). Penrose comments, “I cannot even recall seeing anything else in physics whose accuracy is known to approach, even remotely, a figure like one part in 1010 (123).” [4]

• Volume of the phase space of possible universes: Roger Penrose of Oxford University states “In order to produce a universe resembling the one in which we live, the Creator would have to aim for an absurdly tiny volume of the phase space of possible universes” Now, how tiny is this volume? According to Penrose the volume of the phase space would be 1/10 to the power of X which is 10123. This is smaller than the ratio of a Proton! This precision is much, much greater than the precision that would be required to hit an individual proton if the entire universe were a dartboard! [5]

• If the strong nuclear force were 2% stronger than it is (i.e., if the coupling constant representing its strength were 2% larger), while the other constants were left unchanged, diprotons would be stable and hydrogen would fuse into them instead of deuterium and helium. This would drastically alter the physics of stars, and presumably preclude the existence of life similar to what we observe on Earth. The existence of the di-proton would short-circuit the slow fusion of hydrogen into deuterium. Hydrogen would fuse so easily that it is likely that all of the Universe’s hydrogen would be consumed in the first few minutes after the Big Bang. [6]

This intelligent design of universe doesn’t simply imply existence of a creator but also furthers God as an Omniscient (all knowing) and Most-Wise being. Therefore, the theory of accidental creation of our extremely fine-tuned universe, for no reason at all, is utterly irrational and absurd. These are signs which God has provided us to reflect on. The Quran mentions these signs in several verses, such as following:

“In the creation of the heavens and Earth, and the alternation of the night and day, and the ships which sail the seas to people’s benefit, and the water which God sends down from the sky – by which He brings the Earth to life when it was dead and scatters about in it creatures of every kind– and the varying direction of the winds, and the clouds subservient between heaven and Earth, there are signs for people who use their intellect.” [7]

Atheists feel they have taken a heroic position by relinquishing the belief in existence of God. There are prejudiced people, both atheists and theists, who have prejudged an issue and believe stubbornly whatever they prefer, no matter how many facts and reasons show otherwise. Better ask yourselves whether you are prejudiced or open minded? Whether or not you are willing to change your mind if sound arguments are presented to you? I hope readers will be intellectually sincere in choosing sides.

References
[1] The God Delusion, p157-158
[2] Quran, 52:35-36
[3] Hugh Ross, The creator and the Cosmos, p115
[4] Roger Penrose, “Time Asymmetry and Quantum Gravity,” in Quantum Gravity 2, ed.C. J. Isham, R. Penrose, and D. W. Sciama (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1981), p. 249; cf. Hawking and Penrose, Nature of Space and Time, pp. 34-35.
[5] Penrose 1989, p.343
[6] Paul Davies, 1993. The Accidental Universe , Cambridge University Press, p70-71
[7] Quran, 2:164

By Fuzail Ahmad