Friday, 5 July 2013

Eternity of Universe : Reality or Myth?

I decided to write on this because atheists now a days are quite fond of using the argument of eternity of universe to disprove existence of God, which can disprove Kalam argument and not existence of God. 

 For instance, it doesn't explain the fine tuning, for which the only logical explanation is God's existence. Nevertheless, I'll be refuting this bogus hope for insincere atheists. 

Some atheist philosophers, Carl sagan and his likes tried their best to popularize this hoax of eternity of universe which i'm afraid is not plausible notion in case we take modern established science into consideration. 

For Instance, Big Bang a widely accepted theory or a more apt evidence, The Second Law of thermodynamics which introduced the law of entropy explains the direction of various processes that occur in the natural world. 'Entropy' is a measure of how evenly energy is distributed in a system. For instance, heat always flows from a body of a higher temperature or energy to one of a lower temperature or energy.

To explain it precisely, according to to the second law of thermodynamics, processes in a closed system tend towards higher entropy(low temperature or energy), as their energy is being used.

Therefore, Applying  second law of thermodynamics to this universe we’ll conclude that it must have began to exist as the universe is a closed system, with enough time this universe will suffer a heat death or thermodynamic equilibrium(When systems are in thermodynamic equilibrium, they cannot transfer energy)

This is because entropy can only increase over time. Hence, as the universe continues to expand it will gradually become cold and dead. So, if the universe never began to exist as per premise (a) it would imply that the universe has existed for an infinite amount of time, so with enough time this universe would’ve already been in state of heat death or ‘thermodynamic equilibrium’. Since, universe is not suffering any heat death it unambiguously implicates that it must have had begin to exist.

However, Skeptics and some atheists may still argue(because of their superficial knowledge)  that :

(i) First law of thermodynamics states that“Energy can neither be created, nor be destroyed” and since universe we live in is mere sum of matter(energy) it cannot have a beginning and neither end.

But, this is a serious erroneous application of this law, what this law asserts as understood by majority of physicist is that no new energy/matter is formed in the universe after its onset. Else if we take this assumption(universe is eternal) into contemplation it would defy the consequences of second law of thermodynamics.

(ii) Oscillating universe model – This model states that if the gravitational pull of the mass of the universe was able to overcome the force of its expansion, then it might result into contraction of universe resulting into big-crunch and then into new expansion resulting into – ‘big bang’.

In precise, it states that universe is following a cycle of Big bang and big crunch and that it will continue forever and therefore universe is eternal.

However, this argument has some serious flaws

(1) There isn’t enough mass in the universe to create a gravitational force that can draw the galaxies back together.

This conclusion has come from clusters of galaxies observed by a team of astronomers at Princeton University Observatory based on images from the Hubble Space Telescope. Neta Bahcall, leader of the team said, “There’s simply not enough matter to close the universe and make it stop expanding.”

(2) The speed of the movement of the galaxies is too great for their gravity to reverse their movement.

(3) The amount of deceleration indicates that galaxies will not slow down enough before they are too far apart to be brought back.

(4) The decrease of mass because of the depletion of nuclear energy will greatly decrease gravitational pull making a reversal impossible.

(5) all nuclear energy will finally be used up which will imply an end of this universe.

(6) If our universe will “turn dark and cold as nuclear furnaces and even massive black holes run out of fuel” then at some time in the past the universe must have been given its nuclear fuel. It could not have been using its fuel forever in the past or it would already have used all its nuclear fuel.

(7)  According to the oscillation model, the entropy is conserved from cycle to cycle of the various oscillations of expansion, crunch and expansion. This has the effect of generating larger and longer oscillations. Therefore the thermodynamic property of this model implies a beginning, as the universe that we exist in has not suffered a heat death, or thermodynamic equilibrium.

(8) Universe couldn’t oscillate i.e create-destroy-create-destroy-ad infinitum as if it were to contract is that the universe is extremely inefficient (entropic).

In fact, the universe is so inefficient that the oscillation resulting from the collapse of the universe would be only 0.00000001% of the original Big Bang. Such a small “bounce” would result in an immediate re-collapse of the universe into one giant black hole for the rest of eternity.

Since, i gave this erroneous notion of universe eternity a ‘Death Blow‘, the only possibility we’ve is this universe must have had a beginning.

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